01/29/2011 20:03:42truefalsefalse3207false1.1falsefalsefalsedefault_0.swf12Slide1NS 315Unit 4: Carbohydrate Metabolism 1NS 315Unit 4: Carbohydrate Metabolism Dr. Rebekah S. Marsh
Kaplan University 720540falsefalse14slide1.swfSlide2Slide 21Unit 7: Exercise paper
Four hours ago, I ate 3 oz of baked chicken marinated in 1 tsp olive oil and other spices, 1 cup rice and ½ cup beans, 2 cups salad (romaine lettuce, carrots, onions and radishes) with 2 tablespoons ranch dressing and 1 cup of skim milk. Now, I am going to run for 45 minutes and will lift weights for another 30 minutes
DUE: by EOD Tuesday 03/22/2011 Are these activities considered aerobic, anaerobic or a combination of both? And why do you believe so based on the scenario above?
Based on the meal plan above, what foods contain carbohydrates, proteins and fats?
How are carbohydrates, proteins and fats digested and absorbed?
Which main pathway is utilized (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, beta oxidation) when first starting to work out? What macronutrient does this pathway use and what are the end products?
Please explain beta oxidation and gluconeogenesis: what macronutrients they are utilizing, what the end products are and why they are needed while working out? 720540falsefalse14slide2.swfSlide3Introduction to Carbohydrate Metabolism 1Introduction to Carbohydrate Metabolism 720540falsefalse14slide3.swfSlide4Key Terms 1Key Terms Anabolism: Assembly of complex organic molecules
Catabolism: Degradation of complex molecules
Heterotrophs: Synthesize their organic metabolites only from other organic compounds, which they consume 720540falsefalse14slide4.swfSlide5Key Terms 1Key Terms Intermediary Metabolism: All reactions concerned with storing and generating metabolic energy and with using that energy in biosynthesis of low molecular weight compounds
Energy Metabolism: Pathways that store or generate metabolic energy 720540falsefalse14slide5.swfSlide6Slide 61Overview of Metabolism 720540falsefalse14slide6.swfSlide7Three Stages of Metabolism 1Three Stages of Metabolism ncbi.nlm.nih.gov 720540falsefalse14slide7.swfSlide8The Major Metabolic Pathways 1The Major Metabolic Pathways http://staff.jccc.net/PDECELL/cellresp/simpleover.gif 720540falsefalse14slide8.swfSlide9Biosynthesis & Degradative Pathways 1Biosynthesis & Degradative Pathways 720540falsefalse14slide9.swfSlide10Carbohydrate Metabolism:Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis 1Carbohydrate Metabolism:Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis 720540falsefalse14slide10.swfSlide11Key Terms 11111Key Terms Glycolysis: central pathway for the catabolism of carbohydrates; occurs in most organs
Glyconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of new glucose; occurs mainly in liver
Glycogenesis: group of enzymatic reactions leading to the formation of glycogen
Glycogenolysis: group of enzymatic reactions that use stored glycogen to form glucose 720540falsefalse14slide11.swfSlide12Key Terms (continued) 12121Key Terms (continued) Pyruvate: final 3 carbon molecule of glycolysis, involved in the Krebs cycle which facilitates energy production
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) /Adenosine triphosphate (ATP): energy storing molecule used by an organism on a daily basis
Aerobic: in the presence of oxygen
Anaerobic: no presence of oxygen 720540falsefalse14slide12.swfSlide13Glycolysis Animation 1Glycolysis Animation Please review the website for an animated description of glycolysis pathway and we will discuss it in 5 minutes
Other good sites to review Glycolysis:
http://www.dnatube.com/video/2338/Glycolysis 720540falsefalse14slide13.swfSlide14Glycolysis 1Glycolysis http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/ecb/ecb_images/13_01Glycolysis-Steps_1-5.jpg 720540falsefalse14slide14.swfSlide15Fates of Pyruvate 151Fates of Pyruvate Under aerobic conditions Under anaerobic conditions In most aerobic organisms, pyruvate continues in the formation of Acetyl CoA and NADH that follows into the Krebs cycle and ETC Under anaerobic conditions, such as during exercise or in red blood cells (no mitochondria), pyruvate is reduced to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase producing NAD for glycolysis 720540falsefalse14slide15.swfSlide16Pathways during Glycolysis 16161Pathways during Glycolysis Aerobic- with oxygen The main energy releasing pathway in most human cells
Continues in the mitochondrion where oxygen serves as the final electron receptor
1 glucose + 6 oxygen 6 carbon dioxide +6 water
36 or 38 ATPs are produced (total after all cycles: glycolysis, krebs and ETC) Anaerobic- without oxygen Fermentation pathway and anaerobic electron transport- many bacteria and humans, when oxygen is limited, use this pathway
Ends in the cytoplasm where other substances besides oxygen is the final electron receptor
Only 2 ATP are produced 720540falsefalse14slide16.swfSlide17Gluconeogenesis 1Gluconeogenesis http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/images/gluconeogenesis.jpg 720540falsefalse14slide17.swfSlide18Gluconeogenesis 18181Gluconeogenesis Synthesis of glucose from 3-4 carbon precursors is a reversal of glycolysis
3 reactions in glycolysis are essentially irreversible, thus they are bypassed in gluconeogenesis:
Pyruvate Kinase (10)
Share 7 of the 10 steps in glycolysis 720540falsefalse14slide18.swfSlide19Glycolysis vs Gluconeogenesis 19191Fed state
All cells Fasting state
Liver mostly, but also kidney Glycolysis vs Gluconeogenesis 720540falsefalse14slide19.swfSlide20Carbohydrate Metabolism:Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain 1Carbohydrate Metabolism:Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain 720540falsefalse14slide20.swfSlide21Definitions 211Definitions Krebs cycle - series of enzymatic reactions in aerobic organisms involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl units and producing high-energy phosphate compounds, which serve as the main source of cellular energy
Electron Transport Chain (ETC) - Composed of mitochondrial enzymes that transfers electrons from one transport to another, resulting in the driving force for the formation of ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation - Process occurring in the cell, which produce energy and synthesizes ATP 720540falsefalse14slide21.swfSlide22Definitions 1Definitions NAD/NADPH: Reducing agent in several anabolic reactions such as lipid and nucleic acid
FAD/FADH: Reducing agent in several anabolic reactions such as lipid 720540falsefalse14slide22.swfSlide23Krebs Cycle 1Krebs Cycle Also known as the citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle
Under aerobic conditions pyruvate enters the mitochondria MATRIX and is oxidized to Acetyl CoA which enters the Krebs cycle
Krebs cycle can occur after glycolysis, after Beta oxidation or protein degradation to provide energy for cellular respiration
Equation for Krebs cycle with the beginning products and the ending. 8 steps involved 720540falsefalse14slide23.swfSlide24Krebs Cycle 1Krebs Cycle Please go to: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter25/animation__how_the_krebs_cycle_works__quiz_1_.html and we will discuss the krebs cycle after the animated movie.
Other sites for the Krebs Cycle:
http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/596electransport.html 720540falsefalse14slide24.swfSlide25Krebs Cycle (TCA) 1Krebs Cycle (TCA) http://image.tutorvista.com/content/respiration/krebs-cycle.jpeg 720540falsefalse14slide25.swfSlide26Summary TCA 1Summary TCA Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
Uses acetyl CoA to produce:
3 NADH, 1 FADH, 1 GTP, 2Co2
Produce intermediates for biosynthetic pathways such as amino acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis, pyrimidine synthesis, phorphyrin synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, isoprenoid synthesis. 720540falsefalse14slide26.swfSlide27Electron Transport Chain (ETC) 1Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Final pathway by which electrons generated from oxidation of carbs, protein and fatty acids, are ultimately transferred to O2 to produce H2O
Located in the inner mitochondrial membrane
Electrons travel down the chain, pumping protons into the intermembrane space creating the driving force to produce ATP in a process called oxidative phosphorylation
There are 4 complexes that comprise the ETC 720540falsefalse14slide27.swfSlide28Electron Transport Chain 1Electron Transport Chain Please go to:
and we will discuss about the ETC after the animated film.
Other help link to explain the ETC:
http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/etc/movie.htm 720540falsefalse14slide28.swfSlide29Electron Transport Chain 1Electron Transport Chain http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/etc/Stills/0917.jpg 720540falsefalse14slide29.swfSlide30Summary ETC 1Summary ETC Reduced electron carriers NADH & FADH2 reduce O2 to H2O via the ETC. The energy released creates a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The protons flow down this concentration gradient back across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the ATP Synthase. The driving force makes this enzyme rotate and this conformation generates enough energy to produce ATP.
Oxidation of NADH to NAD+ pumps 3 protons which charges the electrochemical gradient with enough potential to generate 3 ATPs.
Oxidation of FADH2 to FAD+ pumps 2 protons which charges the electrochemical gradient with enough potential to generate 2 ATPs. 720540falsefalse14slide30.swfSlide31Oxidative Phosphorylation 1Oxidative Phosphorylation http://stevebambas.com/images/AP%20220%20ox%20phosph.jpg 720540falsefalse14slide31.swfSlide32References 1References Introduction to Carbohydrate Metabolism
Mathews C & Van Holde K. (1990). Biochemistry. Redwood City: The Benjamin/Cummings
King, M (2010). Digestion of Dietary Carbohydrates. Retrieved on May 13, 2010 from http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/glycolysis.html
Hardy, J (2003). Gluconeogenesis. Retrieved on May 13, 2010 from http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/604glycogenesis.html
Campbell, Neil A. (2005) AP Edition Biology. 7th. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Carbohydrate Metabolism: Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain
Phases of the Krebs Cycle (N.D.) Retrieved on May 13, 2010 from http://incolor.inebraska.com/mcanaday/Krebs%20Phases.htm
Electron Transport Chain (N.D.) Retrieved on May 13, 2010 from http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/etc/movie.htm
Campbell, Neil A. (2005) AP Edition Biology. 7th. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings 720540falsefalse14slide32.swf